Mosquitoes

Mosquitoes

Pest Library Entry:

Order= Diptera

Family= Culicidae

Common Pest Species:

Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti)

Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus)

Common Malaria Mosquito (Anopheles quadrimaculatus)

Common House Mosquito (Culex pipiens)

Gallnipper (Psorophora ciliata)

Active Times: Day and Night *(Dusk and High Noon being two high activity times)

Characteristics (Appearance/Habitation/Etc.):

Mosquitoes are small hovering species of insect closely related to flies. The females use a specially adapted needle-like proboscis to pierce flesh and suck out blood. Other than for reproduction purposes in females, most male and female mosquito species feed on plant nectar for energy. Mosquitoes have had millions of years since the Jurassic period to develop the traits that allow them to be so successful. A female mosquito on the hunt for blood can use odor, heat, and the co2 exhaled when breathing to accurately detect a prey. Due to the vast range of species present in the United States; there sizes, habitats, appearances, and behaviors differ slightly. Mosquitoes breed and successfully feed in woodlands, beaches, grasslands, cities, and urban areas.

Mosquitoes species in North America number in the thousands. Their ranges extend the entirety of the lower coast of the country, and in the interior states neighboring those areas. Many species ranges are starting to encroach further and into areas they are not normally seen. This is due to warming climate trends and the ability of some mosquitoes to change behaviors allowing them to survive through winter (Ex. Washington D.C.). Mosquitoes harbor a variety of parasites, bacteria, and viruses which cause serious life threatening diseases in humans and pets. Many mosquitoes species live an average length of 1 month, with active times being primarily in the Spring and Summer months into the early months of Fall.

Reproduction: Depending on the species a female mosquito might mate many times with different individuals or just with one. Female mosquitos are dependent on a blood meal diet in order to reproduce. Many species are capable of laying upwards of thousands of eggs per breeding season. These eggs are generally placed in stagnant water, but many species also prefer ponds, salt water, and even rivers. Some species can lay eggs on the ground which can take months to hatch in dry conditions waiting for rain, and eggs that can survive through the winter.  Many species lays eggs in aqueous environments that can hatch and develop in about a week. A common mosquito in a city may need stagnant water as little as a teacup to lay eggs in.

Diet: Nectarivore (Nectar Eaters) & Sanguivore (Blood Sucking in Females for Reproduction).

Diseases:
Lyme Disease

West Nile Virus

Malaria

Dengue

Yellow Fever

Zika

Heartworm (Dogs & Cats)

Notes/Research Sources:

http://www.cdc.gov/zika/vector/range.html

http://www.mosquitoreviews.com/mosquito-genus-species.html
http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Anopheles_quadrimaculatus/

http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Aedes_albopictus/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culex_pipiens

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psorophora_ciliata

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aedes_albopictus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles

<img src=”https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3f/Global_Aedes_aegypti_distribution_%28e08347%29.png/1920px-Global_Aedes_aegypti_distribution_%28e08347%29.png” alt=”Global Aedes aegypti distribution (e08347).png”/>

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